To find qualified experienced researcher to study our methods and effectiveness, we set these guidelines.


Terms of Reference

Assessing the Impact of ‘a Clean Lake is a Happy Life’ educational intervention on sanitation and hygiene, Niassa Mozambique

Cause to Wonder are commissioning an impact assessment for an educational sanitation and hygiene intervention carried out in March 2014. This evaluation will inform Cause to Wonder’s intervention strategies moving forward, and improve the evidence base for its work globally.



Cause to Wonder

Cause to Wonder activities capitalize on natural curiosity and use interactive performances to educate and provoke word of mouth media, promoting topics such as gender quality, good sanitation and hygiene practices, and social justice.  We facilitate grassroots dissemination of information to the people of isolated rural communities in impoverished nations through creative, collaborative, cross-cultural public performances that purposefully provide spaces for the exchange of ideas, dialogue and education.  The magic tricks that illustrate the stories central to our mission seem supernatural to the audience.  The wonder  ignites word of mouth discussion and our story telling quickly spreads, hopefully becoming part of the regional cultural myth and thus taking the message beyond our initial intervention location. The main objective is for this increase in awareness to lead to permanent behavioral change.

Water Sanitation and Hygiene

Water quality is a growing concern throughout the developing world. Drinking water sources are under increasing threat from contamination, with far-reaching consequences for the health and economic and social development of communities and nations.[1] Improved access to safe water and sanitation facilities leads to healthier families and communities. However, when people are also motivated to practice good hygiene, health benefits are significantly increased.[2] 

The chemical contamination of water supplies – both naturally occurring and from pollution – is a very important issue. Microbiological contamination of drinking water supplies, especially from human feces is a particularly serious problem. Fecal contamination of drinking water is a major contributor to diarrhea disease, which kills millions of children every year. As populations, pollution and environmental degradation increase, so will the chemical and microbiological contamination of water supplies.

Education and communication are important components of any hygiene promotion program. All people have a right to know about the relationship between water, sanitation, hygiene and the health of themselves and their families. However, education alone does not necessarily result in improved practices. Knowing about the causes of disease may help, but new hygiene practices may be too unfamiliar, too difficult, or take too much time to practice.

Niassa, Mozambique

The Niassa region of Mozambique lies alongside Lake Niassa, on the Malawi and Tanzanian borders. It is a remote region, one of the furthest from the country’s southern capital, Maputo. Niassa is the country’s largest region, and it contains the biggest conservation area in Mozambique (42,000 square km). The main livelihood activities are small-scale farming, some tourism around the lake or safari trips in the Niassa Reserve, and fishing is a principal source of food for those living near the lake.  Niassa is divided into 18 districts. Various languages are spoken in this region.

Program Description

The program tackled the problem of water pollution from sewage contamination along the shores of Lake Niassa. The interventions were designed to educate Niassa villagers about the dangers of defecating in, or contaminating the lake which provides their main source of food and drinking water, and introduce conservation ideas to them. The storytelling in the performance was visually enhanced by magic tricks to illustrate the negative effects of water contamination from faeces or chemicals. Dry composting was demonstrated, a song  "A clean lake is a happy life" was repeated throughout the program and signs were posted  in each village bearing this same slogan.

The intervention targeted 5 lakeside villages for an estimated total audience of 680, including adults and children. The same show was performed once in each village during March 2014 and was designed to be interactive to involve and engage the audience. Thus some of the audience (usually children) became part of the magic trick. The program spread the information with the slogan ‘A clean lake is a happy life’, translated to the local language Nianga and which was made into a song and repeated during the performances.

Local Collaborators

Cause to Wonder worked with The Manda Wilderness Community Trust (MWCT) in Niassa in order to identify and locate villages to visit. MWCT partners with over 20,000 people in sixteen villages spread over an area of 250,000 hectares. The villagers autonomously identify and prioritise their needs, undertake certain tasks and provide some raw materials such as bricks and timber. The MWCT then provides logistical support and/or additional materials to ensure the success of the project. Cause to Wonder used the MWCT local staff as guides and translators.


Nkiwichi Lodge are the ecotourism side of MWCT and are willing to provide basic accommodation, organize arrival and departure transportation and serve as a contact point.

Estamos is a local NGO working on WASH issues through music performances and awareness raising activities.


This impact evaluation will inform Cause to Wonder’s intervention strategies in the future, and improve the evidence base for its work accomplished previously.

As Cause to Wonder continues to grow, this study will be used as the initial basis for implementing an internal evaluation plan, as well as for program development. From the results, Cause to Wonder can decide whether to alter performances (or not), design new techniques to increase impact based on the study recommendations, as well as provide evidence for former and potential donors.

Objectives and Scope

As per the program design, this evaluation will take place just over one year after Cause to Wonder’s activities in Niassa took place.

General Objective:

To assess how the Cause to Wonder performances are remembered in the communities, and extent to which they created a positive effect on hygiene practices and conservation of the lake, in the 5 villages visited in 2014.

Specific Objectives:

Firstly, the study will gather data from the 5 villages visited by Cause to Wonder, to investigate if and how the magic trick performances, song and underlying teachings are remembered. In particular, the study must note how the magic tricks and Lisa as a performer were perceived by the local audience and how they place it within their own cultural context (shaman, supernatural, strange, white person).

In addition, since it is an isolated region with a unique language, it should be possible to gauge if the message has spread and been transmitted to other members from neighboring villages in the region. If the story of the performance has traveled, then it is hoped that there is a noticeable increase in awareness of the hygiene and conservation issues highlighted in the shows.

Finally, the study will look for evidence of behavior change to see if villagers have subsequently started using composting latrines and washing their clothes away from the water. Primarily the focus will be on those 5 villages visited, but also in neighboring communities that may have heard of the teachings as news travels over time. 


Existing information sources

A rough survey amongst the audiences before presenting the shows showed a low awareness of hygiene or conservation issues. MWCT is happy to share their information of the local communities where they work, upon request.



The methodology should take into consideration the scope of this assessment, which covers thevillages visited by Cause to Wonder, and a sample of other villages where the same language is spoken. As a minimum, the proposed approach should include prior research in the inception phase, interviews with local partners,  and country visits to conduct primary research.

The proposed methodology must assess the impact of Cause to Wonder’s approach to awareness raising in general, and in particular for this study, the topics of hygiene and conservation.

Furthermore, all methodologies proposed should include engagement with stakeholders throughout. For the country visit, the study should target the 5 village communities visited in March 2014, and others, including children, adults, village leaders and health workers, and anyone  who benefited directly from Cause to Wonder performances.


Logistics and procedures

The consultant will:

  • Coordinate directly with Manda Wilderness Trust, Nkwitchi Lodge and other organisations working in Niassa or Mozambique as necessary to gather all relevant information and details during the inception phase.
  • ·Organise all logistics on the ground (travel, translator)
  • ·Organise his/her travel to and from Malawi including visas
  • ·Fieldwork is estimated to take place between June-July 2015
  • ·The consultant will be responsible for data collection
  • ·The consultant is required to submit a digital copy of the Evaluation to Cause to Wonder (want to share it with MWT too?)



The consultant is required to produce the following deliverables:

·         Study Plan (to be developed and submitted during inception phase of study prior to field work)

·         Impact Assessment Report (including a set of actionable recommendations)

·         Video footage, (including scenes of the lake, villages and interviews with villagers on topics related to the study).

·         Baseline study report indicating current knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding basic hygiene and lake conservation.


Delivery timescales should be clearly stated for these and any other outputs in the Assessment Plan.


Reporting and contracting arrangements

The evaluator will formally report to Lisa Menna, Founder of Cause to Wonder and is responsible for submitting the deliverables within the schedule agreed upon in the proposal directly to Ms Menna.


Skills and qualifications

Cause to Wonder invites applications from suitably qualified consultants:

  • ·         Experience in project management
  • ·         Specialist knowledge of evaluation methodologies for interventions in developing countries;
  • ·         Strong facilitation and communication skills
  •           An understanding of the issues surrounding improving the hygiene practices and raising awareness of conservation issues
  • ·         Strong drafting skills and ability to produce good quality reports in English.
  • ·         Experience/ knowledge of participatory methodologies in evaluations
  • ·         Experience working in sub- Saharan Africa




The operational costs will be covered by Cause to Wonder as required (not in arrears). 

Payments will be made in 2 parts as follows, in line with receipt of the deliverables:

·         Work carried out during the inception phase plus projected operational costs to be paid upon submission of the Study Plan. Half the fieldwork days to be paid at this point.

·         Remaining field work days and the reporting phase will be paid upon submission of all deliverables (Impact Assessment Report, video footage and baseline report).




1. The 5 villages visited for magic show performances in March 2014:

Chigoma: 4000 population, 7 hours walking from Nkwichi

Mataka: 2500 population, 6 ahours walk from Nkwichi

Mbueca: 1950 people, 2 hours walk from Nkwichi,

Mala: 600 people, 30 minutes walk from Nkwichi

Chicaia: 900 people, 2 hours walk from Nkwichi

2. Map of Niassa region:

3. Manda Wilderness Community Trust map of coverage: